Sixth Circuit reversed a decision by the trial court to set aside guilty verdicts for health care fraud and making false statements of a federal jury. Opinion.

Dr. Paulus was a successful Kentucky cardiologist and the first in the nation for the total amount billed to Medicare for angiograms.

Government prosecuted Dr. Paulus alleging that he exaggerated the degree of patients’ stenosis or artery blockages and often claimed 70% blockage when in reality there was 40% or lower blockage. If an angiogram shows at least 70% blockage, the accepted standard of medical care allows a doctor to insert a stent with no further testing.

The trial lasted 27 days. The Government presented testimony of nine doctors. The Government’s experts acknowledged that the interpretations of angiograms could vary from one doctor to another.

Regardless, the jury convicted Dr. Paulus of ten counts of false statements and one count of health care fraud and acquitted on five counts of false statements.

The trial court reversed the guilty verdict and ordered a new trial. The trial court found that Dr. Paulus’ interpretations of angiograms – the images that allow doctors to determine whether patient’s artery has become dangerously narrow and in need of a stent – was a “subjective medical opinion, incapable of confirmation or contradiction.”

The Government appealed.

Sixth Circuit sided with the Government and reversed the trial court finding that “a doctor who deliberately inflates the blockage he sees on an angiogram has told a lie; if he does so to bill a more expensive procedure, then he has also committed fraud. Even state-of-the-art scientific measurements may sometimes be imprecise. But in these circumstances, it is up to the jury—not the court—to decide whether the government’s proof is worthy of belief.”

I think the concerns regarding the consequences of this decision are best summarized by the NACDL in its Amicus Brief filed in the case:

Overturning the judgment below would create a precedent allowing the government to obtain criminal convictions against physicians making difficult, highly subjective medical decisions primarily on the basis of the testimony of a single expert with a contrary view. At best, this type of evidence can establish good faith medical error or perhaps negligence, which Congress did not intend tocriminalize and are already appropriately dealt with by other legal means.

NACDL Amicus Brief.


Dr. Jorge Zamora-Quezada was arrested on Monday and charged with leading a $240 million health care fraud and money laundering scheme.  The Indictment charges one count of conspiracy to commit health care fraud, five counts of health care fraud, and one count of conspiracy to commit money laundering.

Dr. Zamora-Quezada is a rheumatology specialist practicing in the South Texas area.  The doctor operates various clinics focused on arthritis and osteoporosis.

The Indictment alleges that Dr. Zamora-Quezada engaged in a wide ranging scheme starting in 2000.  The scheme allegedly involved falsely diagnosing patients with a degenerative diseased and giving patients unneeded treatments.  The Indictment alleges, among other things, that Dr. Zamora-Quezada would falsely diagnosis patients with rheumatoid arthritis and then administer chemotherapy and other toxic medications.  The Indictment also alleges that the doctor and co-conspirators conducted and billed for a battery of fraudulent and repetitive procedures.

The Government claims that Dr. Zamora-Quezada tried to hide his scheme by dismissing patients that questioned his practices and by the creation of fake medical records.

The Government filed a motion seeking pretrial detention.  The motion requested pretrial detention based on Dr. Zamora-Quezada’s access to wealth, his private jet, his ties to Mexico, and his history of intimidating witnesses.  The motion describes the evidence against Dr. Zamora-Quezada, which includes patients that will testify against him and other doctors in the community that will say Dr. Zamora-Quezada was known for his practice of  falsely diagnosing patients.

The detention hearing was held today.  The court granted the Government’s motion for pretrial detention and remanded the doctor to the custody of the U.S. Marshals.  The final pretrial conference in the case is set for July 2, 2018.  The court further noted that it would announce the scheduled trial date soon.

Dr. Zamora-Quezada’s detention complicates trial preparation for the defense.  In health care fraud cases, it is imperative for doctor defendants to assist in reviewing patient records and participating in the creation of a defense.